|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2016
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
We are subject to U.S. federal, state and international income taxes. We are generally no longer subject to federal, state, or international income tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2011 with few exceptions. Due to the potential for resolution of state and foreign examinations, and the expiration of various statutes of limitations, it is reasonably possible that our gross unrecognized tax benefit balance may change within the next twelve months by a range of $0 to $6.8 million.
Effective Tax Rate. Our effective income tax rate was 29.1% and 30.8% for the three months ended September 30, 2016 and September 30, 2015, respectively. Our effective income tax rate was 32.1% and 31.4% for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and September 30, 2015, respectively. In 2016, our foreign rate differential is more favorable than 2015 due to higher earnings in lower tax jurisdictions and the rationalization of the structure of foreign subsidiaries. The effective tax rate for the third quarter of 2016 also benefits from an increase of research and development tax credits. The 2015 tax rate benefited from other non-recurring permanent items including the settlement of escrow related to a past acquisition and state law changes that did not recur in 2016.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef