Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Operations
Nature of Operations.  We collect, organize and manage various types of financial, demographic, employment, criminal justice data and marketing information. Our products and services enable businesses to make credit and service decisions, manage their portfolio risk, automate or outsource certain payroll-related, tax and human resources business processes, and develop marketing strategies concerning consumers and commercial enterprises. We serve customers across a wide range of industries, including the financial services, mortgage, retail, telecommunications, utilities, automotive, brokerage, healthcare and insurance industries, as well as government agencies. We also enable consumers to manage and protect their financial health through a portfolio of products offered directly to consumers. As of March 31, 2024, we operated in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom ("U.K."), Uruguay and the United States of America ("U.S."). We also have investments in consumer and/or commercial credit information companies through joint ventures in Brazil, Cambodia, Malaysia and Singapore.
We develop, maintain and enhance secured proprietary information databases through the compilation of consumer specific data, including credit, income, employment, criminal justice data, asset, liquidity, net worth and spending activity, and business data, including credit and business demographics, that we obtain from a variety of sources, such as credit granting institutions, payroll processors, and income and tax information primarily from large to mid-sized companies in the U.S. We process this information utilizing our proprietary information management systems. We also provide information, technology and services to support debt collections and recovery management.
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation.  The unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, the instructions to Form 10-Q and applicable sections of SEC Regulation S-X. This Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 (“2023 Form 10-K”).
Our unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair presentation of the periods presented and are of a normal recurring nature.
Earnings Per Share Earnings Per Share.  Our basic earnings per share, or EPS, is calculated as net income attributable to Equifax divided by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is calculated to reflect the potential dilution that would occur if stock options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised and resulted in additional common shares outstanding. The net income amounts used in both our basic and diluted EPS calculations are the same.
Financial Instruments Financial Instruments.  Our financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short and long-term debt. The carrying amounts of these items, other than long-term debt, approximate their fair market values due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of our fixed-rate debt is determined using Level 2 inputs such as quoted market prices for publicly traded instruments, and for non-publicly traded instruments, through valuation techniques depending on the specific characteristics of the debt instrument, taking into account credit risk.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements.  Fair value is determined based on the assumptions marketplace participants use in pricing an asset or liability. We use a three level fair value hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used in valuation techniques between observable inputs that reflect quoted prices in active markets, inputs other than quoted prices with observable market data and unobservable data (e.g., a company’s own data).
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis. We did not complete any acquisitions during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and we completed two acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2023. The values of net assets acquired were recorded at fair value using Level 3 inputs. The majority of the related current assets acquired and liabilities assumed were recorded at their carrying values as of the date of acquisition, as their carrying values approximated their fair values due to their short-term nature. The fair values of definite-lived intangible assets acquired in these acquisitions were estimated primarily based on the income and cost approaches. The income approach estimates fair value based on the present value of the cash flows that the assets are expected to generate in the future. We developed internal estimates for the expected cash flows and discount rates in the present value calculations. The cost approach estimates fair value based on determining the amount of money required to replace the asset with another asset with equivalent utility or future service capability.
Trade Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. Accounts receivable are stated at cost and are due in less than a year. Significant payment terms for customers are identified in the contract. We do not recognize interest income on our trade accounts receivable. Additionally, we generally do not require collateral from our customers related to our trade accounts receivable.
The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on management's estimate for expected credit losses for outstanding trade accounts receivables. We determine expected credit losses based on historical write-off experience, an analysis of the aging of outstanding receivables, customer payment patterns, the establishment of specific reserves for customers in an adverse financial condition and adjusted based upon our expectations of changes in macroeconomic conditions that may impact the collectability of outstanding receivables. We reassess the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts each reporting period. Increases to the allowance for doubtful accounts are recorded as bad debt expense, which are included in selling, general and administrative expenses on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.
Other Current Assets Other Current Assets. Other current assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets primarily include amounts receivable from tax authorities and related to vendor rebates. Other current assets also include amounts in specifically designated accounts that hold the funds that are due to customers from our debt collection and recovery management services.
Other Assets Other Assets.  Other assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets primarily represent our investments in unconsolidated affiliates, the Company’s operating lease right-of-use assets, employee benefit trust assets, assets related to life insurance policies covering certain officers of the Company and long-term deferred tax assets.
Equity Investment
Equity Investment. On August 7, 2023, we purchased the remaining interest of our equity investment in Boa Vista Serviços S.A. ("BVS"), a consumer and commercial credit information bureau in Brazil. Up until the date of acquisition, we
recorded this equity investment within Other Assets at fair value, using observable Level 1 inputs.
Other Current Liabilities Other Current Liabilities. Other current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets consist of the current portion of our operating lease liabilities and various accrued liabilities such as interest expense, income taxes, accrued employee benefits, and insurance expense. Other current liabilities also include the offset to other current assets related to amounts in specifically designated accounts that hold the funds that are due to customers from our debt collection and recovery management services.
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest. As part of the merger consideration issued to complete the acquisition of BVS, we issued shares of one of our subsidiaries, Equifax do Brasil, thus resulting in a noncontrolling interest. We recognized the noncontrolling interest at fair value at the date of acquisition. These shares were issued with specific rights allowing the holders to sell the shares back to Equifax, at fair value during specified future time periods starting at the fifth anniversary and only when certain conditions exist. Additionally, the shareholder agreements provide Equifax the right to buy the shares back at fair value at future dates beginning after the tenth anniversary of the acquisition, however Equifax is not required to exercise this right at any point.

We determined that the noncontrolling interest shareholder rights meet the requirements to be considered redeemable.
Therefore, we have classified the noncontrolling interest outside of permanent equity within our Consolidated Balance Sheet. Currently, the noncontrolling interest is not redeemable but it is probable that it will become redeemable in the future.
The redeemable noncontrolling interest is reflected using the redemption method as of the balance sheet date. Redeemable noncontrolling interest adjustments to the redemption values are reflected in retained earnings. The adjustment of redemption value at the period end that reflects a redemption value to an amount other than fair value is included as an adjustment to net income attributable to Equifax stockholders for the purposes of the calculation of earnings per share. None of the current period adjustments reflect a redemption value in excess of fair value.
Change in Accounting Principle and Recent Accounting Pronouncements Adoption of New Accounting Standards. Reference Rate Reform. In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04 “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.” The update provides optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) contract modifications on financial reporting, caused by reference rate reform. ASU 2020-04 is effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-06 "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848." The update extends the sunset date from ASU No. 2020-04 from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2024. After this date, entities will no longer be permitted to apply the relief in Topic 848. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. Stock Compensation. In March 2024, the FASB issued ASU No. 2024-01 "Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope Application of Profits Interest and Similar Awards." The amendments in this update clarify how an entity determines whether a profits interest or similar award (“profits interest award”) is (1) within the scope of ASC 718 or (2) not a share-based payment arrangement and should be accounted for in a manner similar to a cash bonus or profit-sharing arrangement under ASC 710 or other ASC topics. The amendments specifically add an illustrative example that includes four fact patterns to demonstrate how an entity should apply the scope guidance in paragraph 718-10-15-3 to determine whether a profits interest award should be accounted for in accordance with Topic 718. The fact patterns in the illustrative example focus on the scope conditions in paragraph 718-10-15-3. The illustrative example is intended
to reduce (1) complexity in determining whether a profits interest award is subject to the guidance in Topic 718 and (2) existing diversity in practice. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, and interim periods within those annual periods. We are still evaluating whether this update will impact the way we account for our stock-based compensation awards.

Income Taxes. In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09 "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures." The new ASU requires public business entities, on an annual basis, to provide a tabular rate reconciliation (using both percentages and reporting currency amounts) of (1) the reported income tax expense (or benefit) from continuing operations, to (2) the product of the income (or loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and the applicable statutory federal (national) income tax rate of the jurisdiction (country) of domicile using specific categories and separate disclosure for any reconciling items within certain categories that are equal to or greater than a specified quantitative threshold. A public business entity is required to provide an explanation, if not otherwise evident, of the individual reconciling items disclosed, such as the nature, effect, and underlying causes of the reconciling items and the judgment used in categorizing the reconciling items. For each annual period presented, the ASU requires all reporting entities to disclose the year-to-date amount of income taxes paid (net of refunds received) disaggregated by federal (national), state, and foreign. It also requires additional disaggregated information on income taxes paid (net of refunds received) to an individual jurisdiction equal to or greater than 5% of total income taxes paid (net of refunds received). The ASU requires that all reporting entities disclose income (or loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense (or benefit) disaggregated between domestic and foreign, and income tax expense (or benefit) from continuing operations disaggregated by federal (national), state, and foreign. The ASU is effective for public entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. We are still evaluating the impact on our financial statement disclosures.

Segment Reporting. In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-07 "Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures." The amendments in this update address the requirement for a public entity to disclose its significant segment expense categories and amounts for each reportable segment. A significant segment expense is any significant expense incurred by the segment, including direct expenses, shared expenses, allocated corporate overhead, or interest expense that is regularly reported to the chief operating decision maker and is included in the measure of segment profit or loss. The disclosure of significant segment expenses is in addition to the current specifically-enumerated segment expenses required to be disclosed, such as depreciation and interest expense. If a public entity does not disclose any significant segment expenses for a reportable segment, it is required to disclose narratively the nature of the expenses used by the chief operating decision maker to manage the segment's operations. The ASU is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. We are still evaluating the impact, but do not expect the adoption of the standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Business Combinations. In August 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-05 "Business Combinations—Joint Venture Formations (Subtopic 805-60): Recognition and Initial Measurement." The amendments in this update address the accounting for contributions made to a joint venture, upon formation, in a joint venture’s separate financial statements. The update requires that a joint venture apply a new basis of accounting upon formation. By applying a new basis of accounting, a joint venture, upon formation, will recognize and initially measure its assets and liabilities at fair value (with exceptions to fair value measurement that are consistent with the business combinations guidance). The amendments in this update are effective prospectively for all joint venture formations with a formation date on or after January 1, 2025. This update will impact us if we enter into any joint venture agreements after January 1, 2025 and we will evaluate the impact accordingly.