Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
We are subject to U.S. federal, state and international income taxes. We are generally no longer subject to federal, state, or international income tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2016 with a few exceptions. Due to the potential for resolution of state and foreign examinations, and the expiration of various statutes of limitations, it is reasonably possible that our gross unrecognized tax benefit balance may change within the next twelve months by a range of $0 to $5.3 million.
Effective Tax Rate

Our effective income tax rate is 23.9% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 compared to 13.7% benefit for the three months ended March 31, 2019. Our effective tax rate was higher during the first quarter of 2020 as compared to 2019 due to permanent tax differences resulting from the accrual for losses associated with certain legal proceedings and investigations related to the 2017 cybersecurity incident included in the 2019 effective tax rate. The 2020 first quarter rate has been adversely impacted by valuation allowances against the deferred tax assets of certain international operations, however this impact was partially offset by favorable adjustments related to the 2019 legal proceedings. Income taxes for the first quarter of 2019 were calculated using the discrete method, applying the actual year-to-date effective tax rate to our pre-tax loss.

On March 27, 2020 the House passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (The CARES Act), also known as the Third COVID-19 Supplemental Relief bill, and the president signed the legislation into law. We do not expect the
provisions of the legislation to have a significant impact on the effective tax rate or the income tax payable and deferred income tax positions of the Company.

The adverse economic effects of the current COVID-19 pandemic have caused the Company to reassess the need for valuation allowances against deferred tax assets. As a result of this analysis the Company determined it was necessary to place valuation allowances against deferred tax assets of certain subsidiaries. The total amount of the valuation allowances recorded in the first quarter of 2020 was approximately $7.0 million.