|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue [Abstract]|
On January 1, 2018 we adopted ASU 2014-09 using the modified retrospective approach. Comparative financial statements of prior periods have not been adjusted to apply the new method retrospectively. The new method of accounting was applied only to contracts that were not completed at the date of application as well as to the contracts entered into on or after January 1, 2018. Additionally, we reflected the aggregate effect of all modifications to these contracts when identifying the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations, as well as determining the transaction price and allocating the transaction price.
The effect of the adoption on key financial statement line items for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 is as follows:
Revenue Recognition. Based on the information management reviews internally for evaluating operating segment performance and nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows affected by economic factors, we disaggregate revenue as follows:
Revenue is recognized when a performance obligation has been satisfied by transferring a promised good or service to a customer and the customer obtains control of the good or service. In order to recognize revenue, we note that the two parties must have an agreement that creates enforceable rights, the performance obligations must be distinct and the transaction price can be determined. Our revenue is derived from the provision of information services to our customers on a transactional basis, in which distinct services are delivered over time as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the services delivered. To measure our performance over time, the output method is utilized to measure the value to the customer based on the transfer to date of the services promised, with no rights of return once consumed. In these cases, revenue on transactional contracts with defined price but an undefined quantity is recognized utilizing the right to invoice expedient resulting in revenue being recognized when the service is provided and billed. Additionally, multi-year contracts with defined price but an undefined quantity that utilize tier pricing would be defined as a series of distinct performance obligations satisfied over time utilizing the same method of measurement, the output method, with no rights of return once consumed. This measurement method is applied on a monthly basis resulting in revenue being recognized when the service is provided and billed.
Additionally, we recognize revenue from subscription-based contracts under which a customer pays a preset fee for a predetermined or unlimited number of transactions or services provided during the subscription period, generally one year. Revenue from subscription-based contracts having a preset number of transactions is recognized as the services are provided, using an effective transaction rate as the actual transactions are delivered. Any remaining revenue related to unfulfilled units is not recognized until the end of the related contract’s subscription period. Revenue from subscription-based contracts having an unlimited volume is recognized ratably during the contract term. Multi-year subscription contracts are analyzed to determine the full contract transaction price over the term of the contract and the subsequent price is ratably recognized over the full term of the contract.
Revenue is recorded net of sales taxes.
If at the outset of an arrangement, we determine that collectibility is not reasonably assured, revenue is deferred until the earlier of when collectibility becomes probable or the receipt of payment from the customer. If there is uncertainty as to the customer’s acceptance of the performance obligation, revenue is not recognized until the earlier of receipt of customer acceptance or expiration of the acceptance period.
We sell certain offerings that contain multiple performance obligations. These obligations may include consumer or commercial information, file updates for certain solutions, services provided by our decisioning technologies personnel, training services, statistical models and other services. In order to account for each of these obligations separately, the delivered promises within our contracts must meet the criterion to be considered distinct performance obligations to our customer. If we determine that the arrangement does not contain separate distinct obligations, the performance obligations are bundled together until a distinct obligation is achieved. This may lead to the arrangement consideration being recognized as the final contract obligation is delivered to our customer or ratably over the term of the contract.
Some of our arrangements with multiple performance obligations involve the delivery of services generated by a combination of services provided by one or more of our operating segments. No individual information service impacts the value or usage of other information services included in an arrangement and each service can be sold alone or, in most cases, purchased from another vendor without affecting the quality of use or value to the customer of the other information services included in the arrangement. Some of our products require the installation of interfaces or platforms by our technology personnel that allow our customers to interact with our proprietary information databases. These installation services do not meet the requirement for being distinct, thus any related installation fees are deferred when billed and are recognized over the expected period that the customer will benefit from the related services. Revenue from the delivery of one-time files and models is recognized as the service is provided and accepted, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met. The direct costs of installation of a customer are capitalized and amortized over the useful life of the identifiable asset.
We record revenue on a net basis for those sales in which we have in substance acted as an agent or broker in the transaction and therefore do not have control.
In certain instances within our debt collections and recovery management services in our International operating segment and within our Workforce Solutions operating segment, variable consideration is constrained due to the fact that the revenue is contingent on a particular outcome. Within our debt collections and recovery management businesses, revenue is calculated as a percentage of debt collected on behalf of the customer and, as such, is primarily recognized when the debt is collected assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met. Within our Workforce Solutions operating segment, the fees for certain of our tax credits and incentives revenue are based on a percentage of the credit delivered to our clients. Revenue for these arrangements is recognized based on the achievement of milestones, upon calculation of the credit, approval from a regulatory agency or when the credit is utilized by our client, depending on the provisions of the client contract.
Judgments and Uncertainties – Each performance obligation within a contract must be considered separately to ensure that appropriate accounting is performed for these distinct goods or services. These considerations include assessing the price at which the element is sold compared to its standalone selling price; concluding when the element will be delivered; evaluating collectability; and determining whether any contingencies exist in the related customer contract that impact the prices paid to us for the services.
Contract Balances – The contract balances are generated when revenue recognized varies from billing in a given period. A contract asset is created when an entity transfers a good or service to a customer and recognizes more revenue than what has been billed. As of September 30, 2018, the contract asset balance was $7.0 million. A contract liability is created when an entity transfers a good or service to a customer and recognizes less than what has been billed. As of September 30, 2018 there was no contract liability balance.
Remaining Performance Obligation – We have elected to disclose only the remaining performance obligations for those contracts with an expected duration of greater than 1 year and do not disclose the value of remaining performance obligations for contracts in which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice. We expect to recognize as revenue the following amounts related to our remaining performance obligations as of September 30, 2018 inclusive of foreign exchange impact:
Capitalized Costs – We capitalize certain costs related to obtaining and fulfilling a contract with a customer that we expect to recover, specifically sales commissions. These costs are amortized over the life of the contract. If the amortization period of the assets associated with the cost is less than one year, we have elected to expense the costs as incurred. As of the adoption date and September 30, 2018, there were no costs that had been capitalized.
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef