GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2023
|Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure [Abstract]|
|GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS||GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Goodwill. Goodwill represents the cost in excess of the fair value of the net assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level on an annual basis and on an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. We perform our annual goodwill impairment tests as of September 30.
Changes in the amount of goodwill for the three months ended March 31, 2023, are as follows:
Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets. Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of indefinite-lived reacquired rights representing the value of rights which we had granted to various affiliate credit reporting agencies that were reacquired in the U.S. and Canada. At the time we acquired these agreements, they were considered perpetual in nature under the accounting guidance in place at that time and, therefore, the useful lives are considered indefinite. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized. We are required to test indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually and whenever events or circumstances indicate that there may be an impairment of the asset value. We perform our annual indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test as of September 30, at which point the estimated fair value of our indefinite-lived intangibles exceeded the carrying value. Our indefinite-lived intangible asset carrying amounts did not change materially during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Purchased Intangible Assets. Purchased intangible assets represent the estimated acquisition date fair value of acquired intangible assets used in our business. Purchased data files represent the estimated fair value of consumer and commercial data files acquired through our acquisitions of various companies, including a fraud and identity solutions provider and independent credit reporting agencies in the U.S., Australia and Canada. We expense the cost of modifying and updating credit files in the period such costs are incurred. We amortize all of our purchased intangible assets on a straight-line basis. For additional information about the useful lives related to our purchased intangible assets, see Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2022 Form 10-K.
Purchased intangible assets at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 consisted of the following:
Amortization expense related to purchased intangible assets was $60.7 million and $57.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Estimated future amortization expense related to definite-lived purchased intangible assets at March 31, 2023 is as follows:
The entire disclosure for goodwill and intangible assets.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef